Chronic renal failure


Chronic renal failure is a gradual decline in renal function due to the death of nephrons due to chronic kidney disease. At the initial stages it is asymptomatic, later followed by disorders of the general condition and urination, edema, itching of the skin. The gradual deterioration of renal function leads to disruption of the vital functions of the

body, the emergence of complications of various organs and systems. Diagnosis includes clinical and biochemical tests, Rehberg and Zimnitsky tests, renal ultrasound, ultrasound of renal vessels. Treatment of CKD is based on therapy of the underlying disease, elimination of symptoms, and repeated courses of extracorporeal hemocorrection. Some people are helped with this disease by such drugs as

General information
Chronic renal failure (CKF) – irreversible impairment of filtration and excretory functions of the kidneys, up to their complete cessation, due to the death of renal tissue. CPN has a progressive course, in its early stages it is manifested by general malaise. With the increase of CPN – pronounced symptoms of intoxication of the body: weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, edema, skin – dry, pale yellow. Diuresis decreases sharply, sometimes to zero. In later stages, heart failure, pulmonary edema, susceptibility to bleeding, encephalopathy, uremic coma develop. Hemodialysis and renal transplantation are indicated.

Causes of CKD
Chronic renal failure can be the outcome of chronic glomerulonephritis, nephritis in systemic diseases, hereditary nephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, diabetic glomerulosclerosis, renal amyloidosis, polycystic kidney disease, nephroangiosclerosis and other diseases that affect both kidneys or a single kidney.

The pathogenesis is based on the progressive death of nephrons. Initially, renal processes become less efficient, and then renal function is impaired. The morphological picture is determined by the underlying disease. Histological examination indicates the death of parenchyma, which is replaced by connective tissue. Development of CPN is preceded by a period of suffering from chronic kidney disease lasting from 2 to 10 years or more. The course of kidney disease before the onset of CKD can be divided into a number of stages. Determining these stages is of practical interest, because it affects the choice of treatment tactics.

The following stages of chronic renal failure are distinguished:

Latent. Goes on without pronounced symptoms. Usually detected only by the results of in-depth clinical studies. Cluchal filtration is reduced to 50-60 ml/min, periodic proteinuria is noted.
Compensated. The patient is disturbed by increased fatigue, a feeling of dryness in the mouth. Increased volume of urine with a decrease in its relative density. Decrease of glomerular filtration to 49-30 ml/min. Increased level of creatinine and urea.
Intermittent. The severity of clinical symptoms increases. Complications arise, caused by the increasing CPN. Patient’s condition changes in waves. Decrease of glomerular filtration to 29-15 ml/min, acidosis, steady increase in creatinine level.
Terminal. Gradual decrease of diuresis, edemas increase, rough disturbances of acid-base and water-salt metabolism. Phenomena of cardiac insufficiency, congestive phenomena in liver and lungs, liver dystrophy, polyserositis are observed.